Validation of the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI) in Brazilian Women

Jason M. Nagata, Alessandra Costa Pereira Junqueira, Chloe J. Cattle, Pedro Henrique Berbert de Carvalho, Vitoria Bagolin, Stuart B. Murray, Emilio J. Compte, Telma Maria Braga Costa, Sebastião de Sousa Almeida, Maria Fernanda Laus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Despite high levels of body dissatisfaction and an increasing drive for muscularity among Brazilian women, most of the existing literature on muscle dysmorphia focuses on men and has mainly been conducted in Western and English-speaking regions. As a result, one of the most widely used assessment tools for symptoms of the disorder, the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI), has not yet been evaluated in Brazilian women—an at-risk population. In the present study, we perform a psychometric evaluation of the Brazilian Portuguese translation of the MDDI in a sample of 515 women. We evaluated the factor structure using a two-step, split-sample exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic approach, which supported the original three-factor structure of the measure. Additionally, we found good internal consistency, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability of the measure. Collectively, these results support the use of the measure in Brazilian women and provide a foundation to expand the literature in this population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)58-66
Number of pages9
JournalBody Image
StatePublished - Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Brazil
  • Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory
  • Muscle dysmorphia
  • Women's health


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