Trends in microgrid control

Daniel E. Olivares, Ali Mehrizi-Sani, Amir H. Etemadi, Claudio A. Cañizares, Reza Iravani, Mehrdad Kazerani, Amir H. Hajimiragha, Oriol Gomis-Bellmunt, Maryam Saeedifard, Rodrigo Palma-Behnke, Guillermo A. Jiménez-Estévez, Nikos D. Hatziargyriou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2454 Scopus citations


The increasing interest in integrating intermittent renewable energy sources into microgrids presents major challenges from the viewpoints of reliable operation and control. In this paper, the major issues and challenges in microgrid control are discussed, and a review of state-of-the-art control strategies and trends is presented; a general overview of the main control principles (e.g., droop control, model predictive control, multi-agent systems) is also included. The paper classifies microgrid control strategies into three levels: primary, secondary, and tertiary, where primary and secondary levels are associated with the operation of the microgrid itself, and tertiary level pertains to the coordinated operation of the microgrid and the host grid. Each control level is discussed in detail in view of the relevant existing technical literature.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6818494
Pages (from-to)1905-1919
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Control
  • droop control
  • hierarchical control
  • microgrid
  • smart grid


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