TOI-2525 b and c: A Pair of Massive Warm Giant Planets with Strong Transit Timing Variations Revealed by TESS

Trifon Trifonov, Rafael Brahm, Andrés Jordán, Christian Hartogh, Thomas Henning, Melissa J. Hobson, Martin Schlecker, Saburo Howard, Finja Reichardt, Nestor Espinoza, Man Hoi Lee, David Nesvorny, Felipe I. Rojas, Khalid Barkaoui, Diana Kossakowski, Gavin Boyle, Stefan Dreizler, Martin Kürster, René Heller, Tristan GuillotAmaury H.M.J. Triaud, Lyu Abe, Abdelkrim Agabi, Philippe Bendjoya, Nicolas Crouzet, Georgina Dransfield, Thomas Gasparetto, Maximilian N. Günther, Wenceslas Marie-Sainte, Djamel Mékarnia, Olga Suarez, Johanna Teske, R. Paul Butler, Jeffrey D. Crane, Stephen Shectman, George R. Ricker, Avi Shporer, Roland Vanderspek, Jon M. Jenkins, Bill Wohler, Karen A. Collins, Kevin I. Collins, David R. Ciardi, Thomas Barclay, Ismael Mireles, Sara Seager, Joshua N. Winn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The K-type star TOI-2525 has an estimated mass of M = 0.849 − 0.033 + 0.024 M and radius of R = 0.785 − 0.007 + 0.007 R observed by the TESS mission in 22 sectors (within sectors 1 and 39). The TESS light curves yield significant transit events of two companions, which show strong transit timing variations (TTVs) with a semiamplitude of ∼6 hr. We performed TTV dynamical and photodynamical light-curve analysis of the TESS data combined with radial velocity measurements from FEROS and PFS, and we confirmed the planetary nature of these companions. The TOI-2525 system consists of a transiting pair of planets comparable to Neptune and Jupiter with estimated dynamical masses of m b = 0.088 − 0.004 + 0.005 and m c = 0.709 − 0.033 + 0.034 M Jup, radii of r b = 0.88 − 0.02 + 0.02 and r c = 0.98 − 0.02 + 0.02 R Jup, and orbital periods of P b = 23.288 − 0.002 + 0.001 and P c = 49.260 − 0.001 + 0.001 days for the inner and outer planet, respectively. The period ratio is close to the 2:1 period commensurability, but the dynamical simulations of the system suggest that it is outside the mean-motion resonance (MMR) dynamical configuration. Object TOI-2525 b is among the lowest-density Neptune-mass planets known to date, with an estimated median density of ρ b = 0.174 − 0.015 + 0.016 g cm−3. The TOI-2525 system is very similar to the other K dwarf systems discovered by TESS, TOI-2202 and TOI-216, which are composed of almost identical K dwarf primaries and two warm giant planets near the 2:1 MMR.

Original languageEnglish
Article number179
JournalAstronomical Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2023
Externally publishedYes


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