Theoretical approaches propose a blending between interoception and time estimation. Interoception might constitute a neurophysiological mechanism for encoding duration. However, no study has assessed the convergence between interoception and time estimation using behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional anatomy signatures. We examined the multimodal convergence between interoception and time estimation using a two-fold approach. In study 1, we developed a dual design combining interoception (measuring heartbeat detection - HBD, and heartbeat evoked potential - HEP) with a time estimation paradigm (TEP, estimation of duration of a 120 s interval). In study 2, we performed a conjoint metanalysis (Multi-level Kernel Density Analysis, MKDA) of neuroimaging, including reports of interoception and time estimation. Both studies provide convergent evidence of time estimation's significant involvement in behavioral, electrophysiological (enhanced HEP), and neuroimaging (overlapping cluster in the right insula and operculum) signatures of interoception. Convergent results from both studies offer direct support for a shared mechanism of interoception and time estimation.
- Time estimation