Hot jupiters (P < 10 d, M > 60 M?) are almost always found alone around their stars, but four out of hundreds known have inner companion planets. These rare companions allow us to constrain the hot jupiter's formation history by ruling out high-eccentricity tidal migration. Less is known about inner companions to hot Saturn-mass planets. We report here the discovery of the TOI-2000 system, which features a hot Saturn-mass planet with a smaller inner companion. The mini-neptune TOI-2000 b (2.70 ± 0.15 R?, 11.0 ± 2.4 M?) is in a 3.10-d orbit, and the hot saturn TOI-2000 c (R?, M?) is in a 9.13-d orbit. Both planets transit their host star TOI-2000 (TIC 371188886, V = 10.98, TESS magnitude = 10.36), a metal-rich ([Fe/H] = 0.439) G dwarf 173 pc away. TESS observed the two planets in sectors 9-11 and 36-38, and we followed up with ground-based photometry, spectroscopy, and speckle imaging. Radial velocities from CHIRON, FEROS, and HARPS allowed us to confirm both planets by direct mass measurement. In addition, we demonstrate constraining planetary and stellar parameters with MIST stellar evolutionary tracks through Hamiltonian Monte Carlo under the PyMC framework, achieving higher sampling efficiency and shorter run time compared to traditional Markov chain Monte Carlo. Having the brightest host star in the V band among similar systems, TOI-2000 b and c are superb candidates for atmospheric characterization by the JWST, which can potentially distinguish whether they formed together or TOI-2000 c swept along material during migration to form TOI-2000 b.
- planets and satellites: detection
- planets and satellites: formation
- planets and satellites: gaseous planets
- stars: individual: TOI-2000 (TIC 371188886)
- techniques: photometric
- techniques: radial velocities