Periodic nanotube arrays render enhanced functional properties through their interaction with light and matter, but to reach optimal performance for technologically prominent applications, such as wettability or photonics, structural fine-tuning is essential. Nonetheless, a universal and scalable method providing independent dimension control, high aspect ratios, and the prospect of further structural complexity remains unachieved. Here, we answer this need through an atomic layer deposition (ALD)-enabled multiple patterning. Unlike previous methods, the ALD-deposited spacer is applied directly on the prepatterned target substrate material, serving as an etching mask to generate a multitude of tailored nanotubes. By concept iteration, we further realize concentric and/or binary nanoarrays in a number of industrially important materials such as silicon, glass, and polymers. To demonstrate the achieved quality and applicability of the structures, we probe how nanotube fine-tuning induces broadband antireflection and present a surface boasting extremely low reflectance of <1% across the wavelength range of 300-1050 nm.
- atomic layer deposition
- binary/hierarchical nanostructures
- broadband antireflection
- multiple patterning