Solution-based electrical doping of semiconducting polymer films over a limited depth

Vladimir A. Kolesov, Canek Fuentes-Hernandez, Wen Fang Chou, Naoya Aizawa, Felipe A. Larrain, Ming Wang, Alberto Perrotta, Sangmoo Choi, Samuel Graham, Guillermo C. Bazan, Thuc Quyen Nguyen, Seth R. Marder, Bernard Kippelen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

111 Scopus citations


Solution-based electrical doping protocols may allow more versatility in the design of organic electronic devices; yet, controlling the diffusion of dopants in organic semiconductors and their stability has proven challenging. Here we present a solution-based approach for electrical p-doping of films of donor conjugated organic semiconductors and their blends with acceptors over a limited depth with a decay constant of 10–20nm by post-process immersion into a polyoxometalate solution (phosphomolybdic acid, PMA) in nitromethane. PMA-doped films show increased electrical conductivity and work function, reduced solubility in the processing solvent, and improved photo-oxidative stability in air. This approach is applicable to a variety of organic semiconductors used in photovoltaics and field-effect transistors. PMA doping over a limited depth of bulk heterojunction polymeric films, in which amine-containing polymers were mixed in the solution used for film formation, enables single-layer organic photovoltaic devices, processed at room temperature, with power conversion effciencies up to 5.9 ± 0.2% and stable performance on shelf-lifetime studies at 60°C for at least 280 h.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)474-481
Number of pages8
JournalNature Materials
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes


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