Psychometric Properties of the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory Among Physically Active Brazilian College Men

Vivianny Maria Gonçalves Moura Gomes, Emilio J. Compte, Maurício Almeida, Priscila Figueiredo Campos, Andréia Cristiane Carrenho Queiroz, Lívia Figueiredo Pereira, Ciro José Brito, Pedro Henrique Berbert de Carvalho

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15 Scopus citations


A large body of knowledge already exists on muscle dysmorphia. However, the results are limited to studies with male bodybuilders and competitive weightlifters. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have pointed out limitations in several studies in which muscle dysmorphia symptoms are not assessed by valid and reliable instruments. Thus, this study aimed to describe the translation and cultural adaptation of the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI) to Brazilian Portuguese and to evaluate its psychometric properties when applied to a total of 351 physically active Brazilian college men. Confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity, estimated internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the MDDI scores were examined. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis upheld the original 3-factor structure (13 items) of the MDDI for Brazilian men. The MDDI scores presented a significant moderate association with male body dissatisfaction and drive for muscularity. A significant small association was observed between MDDI scores and depressive symptoms and exercise dependence. Adequate internal consistency and 2-week test-retest reliability were found. The Brazilian version of MDDI showed adequate psychometric properties among physically active college men.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPsychology of Men and Masculinity
StateAccepted/In press - 2020


  • Brazil
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Male body image
  • Muscle dysmorphia
  • Test adaptation


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