Psychometric evaluation of the Drive for Muscularity Scale among weightlifters in Jamaica

Chelsi Ricketts, Emilio J. Compte, Caryl James Bateman, Andre Bateman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (McCreary and Sasse, J Am Coll Health 48(6): 297–304, 2000) (DMS) among a sample of Jamaican male weightlifters. Methods: 205 weightlifters (Mage = 28.49, SD = 9.61) from rural and urban areas in Jamaica, completed the DMS, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 Items (DASS-21) and the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS) in a cross-sectional design. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the DMS and conventional fit indices used to determine model fit. Measurement invariance was examined for urban and rural participants. Correlations between the DMS scores and the DASS-21 and BASS were determined to examine the validity of the scale. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis of the original 2-factor model (muscularity-oriented body image and muscularity behaviors) resulted in overall good fit (CFI =.94, TLI = 0.93, RMSEA = 0.06 [0.05, 0.08], SRMR = 0.08). Also, measurement invariance was observed between weightlifters from rural and urban areas. The DMS was principally correlated with specific body areas previously associated with male’s body dissatisfaction (muscle tone, upper torso and weight) (rs = 0.17 to.47). The DMS showed significant weak to moderate negative correlations with the DASS-21 (rs = − 0.16 to − 0.32). Adequate levels of internal consistency were observed (omega = 0.75–0.88). Conclusion: The DMS showed to be a valid instrument to evaluate the drive for muscularity in Jamaican weightlifters and has utility in informing further research, diagnosis and treatment of body image-related pathologies. Level of evidence: Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)983-991
Number of pages9
JournalEating and Weight Disorders
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • Drive for muscularity
  • Jamaica
  • Weightlifters


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