We present an analytical and numerical study of the orbital migration and resonance capture of fictitious two-planet systems with masses in the super-Earth range undergoing Type-I migration. We find that, depending on the flare index and proximity to the central star, the average value of the period ratio, P2/P1, between both planets may show a significant deviation with respect to the nominal value. For planets trapped in the 2:1 commensurability, offsets may reach values on the order of 0.1 for orbital periods on the order of 1 day, while systems in the 3:2 mean-motion resonance (MMR) show much smaller offsets for all values of the semimajor axis. These properties are in good agreement with the observed distribution of near-resonant exoplanets, independent of their detection method. We show that 2:1-resonant systems far from the star, such as HD 82943 and HR 8799, are characterized by very small resonant offsets, while higher values are typical of systems discovered by Kepler with orbital periods approximately a few days. Conversely, planetary systems in the vicinity of the 3:2 MMR show little offset with no significant dependence on the orbital distance. In conclusion, our results indicate that the distribution of Kepler planetary systems around the 2:1 and 3:2 MMR are consistent with resonant configurations obtained as a consequence of a smooth migration in a laminar flared disk, and no external forces are required to induce the observed offset or its dependence with the commensurability or orbital distance from the star.
- Methods: analytical
- Methods: numerical
- Planet-disk interactions
- Planets and satellites: general