Parental and individual predictors of trajectories of depressive symptoms in Chilean adolescents

Patricio Cumsille, M. Loreto Martínez, Viviana Rodríguez, Nancy Darling

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24 Scopus citations


Depressive symptoms are prevalent in adolescence, but not all adolescents experience the same level or evolution of symptoms, suggesting the need to identify differences in trajectories of symptoms. We used Growth Mixture Modeling to analyze different trajectories of depressive symptoms in a sample of 1,072 Chilean adolescents (12-15 years old, 54% female). First, a baseline model was selected and then adolescent irritability, maternal warmth, demandingness and disrespect were introduced to the model as predictors of class membership. Four latent class trajectories of depressive symptoms were identified: high persistent (12%), low stable (56%), high decreasing (15%) and low increasing (17%). Low stable was the most prevalent class, and was characterized by higher maternal warmth and lower maternal disrespect and adolescent irritability while high persistent was characterized by the opposite maternal characteristics. Significant gender differences in class membership were observed. The results highlight the importance of identifying different trajectories of depressive symptoms and specific predictors of each trajectory. The association of parenting dimensions with trajectories of persistent depressive symptoms provides evidence that parenting can serve as both a protective and risk factor for adolescent adjustment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)208-216
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Adolescence
  • Depressive symptoms
  • Ex post facto study
  • Growth mixture modeling
  • Trajectories


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