Neural and subjective effects of inhaled N,N-dimethyltryptamine in natural settings

Carla Pallavicini, Federico Cavanna, Federico Zamberlan, Laura A. de la Fuente, Yayla Ilksoy, Yonatan S. Perl, Mauricio Arias, Celeste Romero, Robin Carhart-Harris, Christopher Timmermann, Enzo Tagliazucchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Background: N,N-dimethyltryptamine is a short-acting psychedelic tryptamine found naturally in many plants and animals. Few studies to date have addressed the neural and psychological effects of N,N-dimethyltryptamine alone, either administered intravenously or inhaled in freebase form, and none have been conducted in natural settings. Aims: Our primary aim was to study the acute effects of inhaled N,N-dimethyltryptamine in natural settings, focusing on questions tuned to the advantages of conducting field research, including the effects of contextual factors (i.e. “set“ and “setting“), the possibility of studying a comparatively large number of subjects, and the relaxed mental state of participants consuming N,N-dimethyltryptamine in familiar and comfortable settings. Methods: We combined state-of-the-art wireless electroencephalography with psychometric questionnaires to study the neural and subjective effects of naturalistic N,N-dimethyltryptamine use in 35 healthy and experienced participants. Results: We observed that N,N-dimethyltryptamine significantly decreased the power of alpha (8–12 Hz) oscillations throughout all scalp locations, while simultaneously increasing power of delta (1–4 Hz) and gamma (30–40 Hz) oscillations. Gamma power increases correlated with subjective reports indicative of some features of mystical-type experiences. N,N-dimethyltryptamine also increased global synchrony and metastability in the gamma band while decreasing those measures in the alpha band. Conclusions: Our results are consistent with previous studies of psychedelic action in the human brain, while at the same time the results suggest potential electroencephalography markers of mystical-type experiences in natural settings, thus highlighting the importance of investigating these compounds in the contexts where they are naturally consumed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)406-420
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Psychopharmacology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • N,N-dimethyltryptamine
  • complexity
  • electroencephalography
  • field studies
  • psychedelics
  • tryptamines


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