Monitoring a 28.5 m high anchored pile wall in gravel using various methods

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Horizontal displacements of a multiple-anchor pile wall in a 28.5 m deep excavation using the top–down construction method have been monitored using optical fiber (Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry (BOTDR)), strain gauges, inclinometers, and a topographic survey. This work presents a comparison between these different techniques to measure horizontal displacements in the pile at several stages of the soil excavation process. It was observed that displacements can be separated into two components: Rigid body motion and pile flexural deformation. Measurements using optical fiber and inclinometers are considered the most adequate and easy to install. A numerical model allows us to evaluate the influence of earth pressure on the estimated horizontal displacements. It is shown that using soil pressure on the wall given by p = 0.65Kaγh, on a simplified modeled wall, provides a close deduction of horizontal displacements compared to observed values on the field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number80
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2020


  • Anchored wall
  • Deep excavation
  • Monitoring
  • Pile displacement


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