In orthopedic medicine, a feasible reconstruction of bone structures remains one of the main challenges both for healthcare and for improvement of patients’ quality of life. There is a growing interest in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) medical application, due to their multilineage differentiation potential, and tissue engineering integration to improve bone repair and regeneration. In this review we will describe the main characteristics of MSCs, such as osteogenesis, immunomodulation and antibacterial properties, key parameters to consider during bone repair strategies. Moreover, we describe the properties of calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramics, which demonstrate to be useful tools in combination with MSCs, due to their biocompatibility, osseointegration and osteoconduction for bone repair and regeneration. Also, we overview the main characteristics of dental cavity MSCs, which are promising candidates, in combination with CaP bioceramics, for bone regeneration and tissue engineering. The understanding of MSCs biology and their interaction with CaP bioceramics and other biomaterials is critical for orthopedic surgical bone replacement, reconstruction and regeneration, which is an integrative and dynamic medical, scientific and bioengineering field of research and biotechnology.