Leibniz’s Pre-established Harmony Revisited

Translated title of the contribution: Leibniz’s Pre-established Harmony Revisited

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article aims to offer a thorough and new account of the components of Leibniz’s theory of pre-established harmony, understood as an explanation of the unity among all substances. It argues for a formulation of the theory in terms of six complementary components, developing interpretations of them along with critical discussions of other interpretations found in the Leibniz literature. The paper shows that, as they have been presented so far, interpretations of pre-established harmony have almost universally omitted one of its key components, namely Leibniz’s construal of intrinsic force as representational power. Once this is established, the article offers a novel interpretation of the relationship between representational power and the harmony among substances. Particularly, it is argued that, correctly understood, the representation of all substances among themselves entails, or is sufficient for, their harmony.

Translated title of the contributionLeibniz’s Pre-established Harmony Revisited
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)447-476
Number of pages30
JournalSynthesis Philosophica
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
  • perception
  • pre-established harmony
  • substance
  • unity
  • universal expression


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