The pinnotherid crab Pinnaxodes chilensis is a common commensal of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus along the Chilean coast. Several aspects of the reproductive biology of P. chilensis were examined between April and June 1999, along temperature and salinity gradients, at three sampling sites along the Chilean coast (23°45′S-39°24′S). Results demonstrated significant differences in egg number, egg volume, dry egg weight, and reproductive output of ovigerous females, between the studied populations of northern and central-southern Chile. Egg volume, egg dry weight, and reproductive output of females decreased from high to low latitudes, while egg number increased from high to low latitudes, exhibiting a clear trade-off with egg volume. It has been shown that changes in environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, salinity) along a latitudinal gradient, can generate clines in reproductive characteristics in both free-living and parasitic species.