Interval incremental learning of interval data streams and application to vehicle tracking

Daniel Leite, Igor Škrjanc, Sašo Blažič, Andrej Zdešar, Fernando Gomide

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents a method called Interval Incremental Learning (IIL) to capture spatial and temporal patterns in uncertain data streams. The patterns are represented by information granules and a granular rule base with the purpose of developing explainable human-centered computational models of virtual and physical systems. Fundamentally, interval data are either included into wider and more meaningful information granules recursively, or used for structural adaptation of the rule base. An Uncertainty-Weighted Recursive-Least-Squares (UW-RLS) method is proposed to update affine local functions associated with the rules. Online recursive procedures that build interval-based models from scratch and guarantee balanced information granularity are described. The procedures assure stable and understandable rule-based modeling. In general, the model can play the role of a predictor, a controller, or a classifier, with online sample-per-sample structural adaptation and parameter estimation done concurrently. The IIL method is aligned with issues and needs of the Internet of Things, Big Data processing, and eXplainable Artificial Intelligence. An application example concerning real-time land-vehicle localization and tracking in an uncertain environment illustrates the usefulness of the method. We also provide the Driving Through Manhattan interval dataset to foster future investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalInformation Sciences
StatePublished - Jun 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Data stream
  • Granular computing
  • Granular machine learning
  • Interval analysis
  • Online learning


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