High-resolution ALMA Observations of HD 100546: Asymmetric Circumstellar Ring and Circumplanetary Disk Upper Limits

Jaime E. Pineda, Judit Szulágyi, Sascha P. Quanz, Ewine F. Van Dishoeck, Antonio Garufi, Farzana Meru, Gijs D. Mulders, Leonardo Testi, Michael R. Meyer, Maddalena Reggiani

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We present long-baseline Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the 870 μm dust continuum emission and CO (3-2) from the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 100546, which is one of the few systems claimed to have two young embedded planets. These observations achieve a resolution of 4 au (3.8 mas), an rms noise of 66 μJy beam -1 , and reveal an asymmetric ring between ∼20 and 40 au with largely optically thin dust continuum emission. This ring is well fit by two concentric and overlapping Gaussian rings of different widths and a Vortex. In addition, an unresolved component is detected at a position consistent with the central star, which may trace the central inner disk (<2 au in radius). We report a lack of compact continuum emission at the positions of both claimed protoplanets. We use this result to constrain the circumplanetary disk (CPD) mass and size of 1.44 M and 0.44 au in the optically thin and thick regimes, respectively, for the case of the previously directly imaged protoplanet candidate at ∼55 au (HD 100546 b). We compare these empirical CPD constraints to previous numerical simulations. This suggests that HD 100546 b is inconsistent with several planet accretion models, while gas-starved models are also still compatible. We estimate the planetary mass as 1.65 M J using the relation between planet, circumstellar, and circumplanetary masses derived from numerical simulations. Finally, the CO-integrated intensity map shows a possible spiral arm feature that could match the spiral features identified in near-infrared scattered light polarized emission, which suggests a real spiral feature in the disk surface that needs to be confirmed with further observations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number48
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - 20 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • planet-disk interactions
  • protoplanetary disks
  • stars: formation
  • stars: individual (HD 100546)
  • stars: pre-main sequence
  • techniques: interferometric


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