Frequency-Constrained Energy Management System for Isolated Microgrids

Samuel Córdova, Claudio A. Cañizares, Álvaro Lorca, Daniel E. Olivares

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Second-to-second power imbalances stemming from renewable generation can have a large impact on the frequency regulation performance of isolated microgrids, as these are characterized by low inertia and, more commonly nowadays, significant renewable energy penetration. Thus, the present paper develops a novel frequency-constrained Energy Management System (EMS) that takes into account the impact of short-term power fluctuations on the microgrid's operation and frequency regulation performance. The proposed EMS model is based on accurate linear equations describing frequency deviation, rate-of-change-of-frequency, and regulation provision in daily microgrid operations. Dynamic simulations on a realistic CIGRE benchmark test system show the economic and reliability benefits of the presented EMS model, highlighting the need of incorporating fast power fluctuations and their impact on frequency dynamics in EMSs for sustainable isolated microgrids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3394-3407
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Energy management system
  • frequency dynamics
  • frequency regulation
  • microgrid operation
  • short-term fluctuations


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