Evaluation and characterization of a new method of extracting bark wax from Pinus radiata D. Don

Daniel Sandoval-Rivas, Ewa Moczko, Daniela V. Morales, Matías I. Hepp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The bark of Pinus radiata D. Don is a bioresource of great worldwide abundance. While various forms of use have been studied, it is still a little-used bioresource. Due to its great accumulation, significant solid emissions of this residue generate environmental problems such as changes in soil chemistry, ecological problems such as the alteration of arthropod communities and fire risk. The opportunity to take advantage of this bioresource could be in its wax content, which could be a replacement for the main raw materials used in the production of cosmetics. These currently correspond to petroleum-derived substances, such as petroleum jelly, paraffin, or mineral oil. The importance of replacing these raw materials is that several studies report that they are the main causes of human skin diseases, such as chemical hypersensitivity syndrome and allergic contact dermatitis. This study seeks to prove that lipophilic extracts (waxes) from pine bark can replace petroleum-derived raw materials used in cosmetics. To achieve this, pine bark at drying conditions was characterized, and the performance of wax extraction by various treatments was studied. The density, viscosity, melting point, and solubility in culture media of the obtained waxes were determined. The waxes were chemically characterized by FT-IR and GC[sbnd]MS analysis. The results reveal that the maximum moisture of the bark is 14.54 %, the best extraction yields are obtained by using water at 120 °C and 1.2 atm, and petroleum ether (3.12 %), alkaline hydrolysis 1 mol L−1 (NaOH) and petroleum ether (3.53 %) ethyl acetate (3.23 %). Values were close to the reference study using the rapid lipid extraction method. The density of the wax is 0.845 g mL−1 and its viscosity of 530 cP (24 °C), and the melting point varied according to the extractive treatment at between 25 and 40 °C. Solubility tests made it possible to determine that the 10/50/1000 μL ratio of modified Eagle Dulbecco wax/dimethylsulfoxide/medium allows homogeneous solubilization of the wax without the presence of precipitates. Chemical characterization identified typical functional groups of plant-based waxes such as long-chain alkanes, alkyls, methyl groups, esters, and carbonyls, with the most abundant fatty acids being C:22 and C:24.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114161
JournalIndustrial Crops and Products
StatePublished - 15 Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Extraction
  • Pine wax
  • Radiata pine


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