Demographic predictors of objectification theory and tripartite influence model constructs: The U.S. Body Project I

David A. Frederick, Eva Pila, Vanessa L. Malcarne, Emilio J. Compte, Jason M. Nagata, Cassidy R. Best, Catherine P. Cook-Cottone, Tiffany A. Brown, Lexie Convertino, Canice E. Crerand, Michael C. Parent, Jamie Lee Pennesi, Marisol Perez, Rachel F. Rodgers, Lauren M. Schaefer, J. Kevin Thompson, Tracy L. Tylka, Stuart B. Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


We examined how demographic factors (gender, sexual orientation, racial group, age, body mass) were linked to measures of sociocultural appearance concerns derived from objectification theory and the tripartite influence model (McKinley & Hyde, 1996; Schaefer et al., 2015) among 11,620 adults. Men were less likely than women to report high body surveillance, thin-ideal internalization, appearance-related media pressures, and family pressures; did not differ in peer pressures; and reported greater muscle/athletic internalization. Both men and women expressed greater desire for their bodies to look “very lean” than to look “very thin”. Compared to gay men, heterosexual men reported lower body surveillance, thin-ideal internalization, peer pressures, and media pressures. Black women reported lower thin-ideal internalization than White, Hispanic, and Asian women, whereas Asian women reported greater family pressures. Being younger and having higher BMIs were associated with greater sociocultural appearance concerns across most measures. The variation in prevalence of sociocultural appearance concerns across these demographic groups highlights the need for interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)182-199
Number of pages18
JournalBody Image
StatePublished - Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Body image
  • Gender
  • Objectification theory
  • Sexual orientation
  • Tripartite influence model


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