The ability of Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134(pJP4) to degrade 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and other chlorophenols in a bleached kraft mill effluent was studied. The efficiency of degradation and the survival of strain JMP134 and indigenous microorganisms in short-term batch or long-term semicontinuous incubations performed in microcosms were assessed. After 6 days of incubation, 2,4-dichlorophe-noxyacetate (400 ppm) or 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (40 to 100 ppm) were extensively degraded (70 to 100%). In short-term batch incubations, indigenous microorganisms were unable to degrade such of compounds. Degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by strain JMP134 was significantly lower at 200 to 400 ppm of compound. This strain was also able to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 4- chlorophenol, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol when bleached Kraft mill effluent was amended with mixtures of these compounds. On the other hand, the chlorophenol concentration and the indigenous microorganisms inhibited the growth and survival of the strain in short-term incubations. In long-term (>1-month) incubations, strain JMP134 was unable to maintain a large, stable population, although extensive 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation was still observed. The latter is probably due to acclimation of the indigenous microorganisms to degrade 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. Acclimation was observed only in long-term, semicontinuous microcosms.