Consumer-based brand equity for Australia as a long-haul tourism destination in an emerging market

Steven Pike, Constanza Bianchi, Gayle Kerr, Charles Patti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

190 Scopus citations


Purpose: Although the branding literature emerged during the 1940s, research relating to tourism destination branding has only gained momentum since the late 1990s. There remains a lack of theory in particular that addresses the measurement of the effectiveness of destination branding over time. The purpose of this paper is to test the effectiveness of a model of consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) for a country destination. Design/methodology/approach: A model of CBBE was adapted from the marketing literature and applied to a nation context. The model was tested by using structural equation modelling with data from a large Chilean sample (n=845) comprising a mix of previous visitors and non-visitors. The model fits the data well. Findings: The paper reports the results of an investigation into brand equity for Australia as a long-haul destination in an emerging market. The research took place just before the launch of the nation's fourth new brand campaign in six years. The results indicate Australia is a well-known but not compelling destination brand for tourists in Chile, which reflects the lower priority the South American market has been given by the national tourism office. Practical implications: The paper suggested that CBBE measures could be analysed at various points in time to track any strengthening or weakening of market perceptions in relation to brand objectives. A standard CBBE instrument could provide long-term effectiveness performance measures regardless of changes in destination marketing organisation staff, advertising agency, other stakeholders and budget. Originality/value: The paper contributes to the nation-branding literature by being one of the first to test the efficacy of a model of CBBE for a tourism destination brand.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)434-449
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Marketing Review
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2010


  • Australia
  • Consumer-based brand equity
  • Destination branding
  • Destination marketing organizations


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