Assessment of the potential impacts of a carbon tax in Chile using dynamic CGE model

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Abstract

Carbon taxes have been proposed as a major instrument to mitigate carbon emissions and promote an energy transition to low carbon sources. However, its adoption remains politically challenging, particularly amid rising inflation and energy prices. Despite the need for more aggressive action on carbon mitigation to reach the Paris Agreement goals, few countries in Latin America have adopted carbon taxes and the tax levels are relatively low. A key concern for these countries, is to adequately assess the tradeoffs between stricter emission goals and the potential negative economy wide as well as sectoral and distributive impacts. In this context, in this paper we first propose a step by step approach to enhance an existing dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model for Chile based on OECD's Green model. The contribution of this research is twofold. Firstly, emission factors are estimated and the development of the electricity sector is aligned with the expectations of decision makers. As a result, credible emission and energy sector development forecasts are generated by the model, that are in line with what policymakers expect to happen based on other bottom-up engineering models. Secondly, this baseline is then used in the CGE model to examine the use of a carbon tax to reach Chile's first Nationally Determined Contribution. The required tax level is determined together with CO2 emissions and the economywide, sectoral and distributive impacts. The results allow concluding about the applicability of carbon taxes and possible complementary measures.

Original languageEnglish
Article number136694
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Volume403
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • CGE model
  • CO2 emissions
  • Carbon tax
  • Chile
  • Economy-wide effects

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